In 1964, ARRI introduced the Rontgen Medical X-ray model of the ARRI II C. This version was designed to be used as a cineradiology camera mounted to an X-ray console. It was used to film 35mm black and white moving x-ray images. The body was slightly different from a standard ARRI II C, having a single lens port rather than the usual 3 lens turret, no viewfinder system, and the door was hinged in the back. ARRI made this model through the late 1970's.
ARRI was founded by August Arnold and Robert Richter in Munich, Germany in 1917. Friends from school, Arnold and Richter already had some experience in the motion picture business, having worked as cameramen and lab technicians. They began their business by building a film copying machine using parts out of an old film projector they purchased secondhand. While sales of their machine were going well, both men continued their work in many aspects of the movie business, including as cinematographers, producers, and lighting technicians. In 1918, they worked on their first film with director Fred Stranz, a western called "Der Schwarze Jack" (or Black Jack).
By 1920 they were producing their own short films, and using the profits to improve their printers. In 1924, Arnold began designing their first motion picture camera, the KINARRI 35, as well as their first lighting equipment. This camera was completed by 1925 and Arnold sent it to Richter in the United States where he had gone to learn about the American film business. Their second camera, the TROPEN, which featured an adjustable rotary shutter, was produced during this time as well. In 1928, the KINARRI 16 was developed for an amateur filmmaking audience, along with a 2nd more advanced model that featured an internal spring wind mechanism. In 1934, with sound films now dominating the market, ARRI developed a portable sound camera, but patent issues prevented it from being sold commercially. Success came soon after though.
In 1937, the ARRIFLEX 35 was released, a revolutionary handheld spinning mirror reflex 35mm motion picture camera that featured a spinning mirrored shutter and a parallax-free erect image viewfinder. This design, which saw many innovations and updates after its introduction, was produced until 1978. The Arriflex 35 is a World War II vintage camera, and saw use by the German military during the war. Some early examples of the ARRI 35 were captured by American troops and brought back to the US. In 1946, ARRI introduced the next generation of this camera, the Arriflex 35 II. So influential was the Arriflex 35 series of cameras, that it was awarded an Academy Award of Merit in 1983 for "the concept and engineering of the first operational 35mm, hand-held, spinning mirror reflex, motion picture camera."
The Arriflex 35 II B model was released in 1960, and featured a new transport claw design and a fixed 180-degree shutter. In 1964, the Arriflex 35 II C model was introduced, bringing with it an improved viewfinder system with larger viewfinder optics, interchangeable ground glasses, an interchangeable eyepiece, and a variable shutter. The Arriflex 35 II C was manufactured through 1979.